Types of microbes

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Types of microbes2021-03-30T06:40:07+00:00


Few microorganisms can escape the effects of PureHandle®. Learn more about the bacteria, mold, yeast, and other microbes that our antimicrobial technologies have been successfully tested against.

Escherichia Coli

Gram-negative; facultative anaerobic rod; enteric; ubiquitous in humans; presence in water considered indication of fecal contamination; reservoir; GI and female GU tracts; opportunistic pathogen.

Aspergillus niger

Mold; found in soil, natural debris, air handling systems, indoor and outdoor air; worldwide. Modes of Transmission: contact; trauma; inhalation; ingestion.

Shigella dysenteriae

Enteric, facultative anaerobic Gram-negative rod. Modes of Transmission: Fecal-oral; ingestion of contaminated food and water; food handlers; sexual transmission; contact.

Aureobasidium Pullulans

Yeast-like mold; worldwide. Contact Common Infections: hypersensitivity pneumonitis or "humidifier lung" characterized by shortness of breath, cough, fever, chest infiltrates, and acute inflammatory reaction; catheter-related septicemia.

Chaetomium globosum

Mold; found in soil, air, plant debris; all types of climates from extremes of Himalayas to deserts. Modes of Transmission: contact. Common Infections: contaminant; cutaneous infections. brain abscesses, peritonitis.

Penicillium species

Mold (room temperature) and yeast (body temperature) phases; found in soil, plant material, indoor air; Southeast Asia and China; over 30 species. Modes of Transmission: contact; soil exposure; trauma; inhalation.

Candida albicans

Yeast; normal gastrointestinal, oral, skin flora; worldwide. Modes of Transmission: contact; endogenous. Common Infections: opportunistic; IV and central line infections; thrush; vaginitis; skin and nail infections; meningitis.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Enteric, aerobic Gram-negative rod; worldwide distribution in water, soil, plants. Modes of Transmission: Contaminated water, solutions; foods; exposure to contaminated equipment.

Dust Mites

Symptoms of Infestation: allergy symptoms: sneezing, runny nose, itchy/red, watery eyes, nasal congestion, itchy nose, itchy palate or throat, postnasal drip, cough, facial pressure, or pain.

Enterobacter aerogenes

Gram-negative; facultative anaerobic rod; enteric Modes of Transmission: Unwashed hands; contaminated medical devices and instrumentation; commonly consumed in food and water; endogenous.


Enteric, facultative anaerobic Gram-negative rod. Modes of Transmission: Fecal-oral, sources include: contaminated milk, water, reptiles, amphibians, eggs, ice cream, meringue, shellfish, undercooked chicken, fish, and pork.


Gram-negative V&S-shaped rod; enteric; found in pigs, poultry, birds, cats, and dogs. Common Infections: Gastroenteritis; sepsis; meningitis; abscesses; urinary tract infections; peritonitis; pancreatitis.

Staphylococcus aureus

Your Content Goes Here Gram-positive cocci in grape-like clusters. Modes of Transmission: Endogenous; direct contact; unwashed hands; contaminated foods and equipment. Inhibited by PureHandle®: Yes

Listeria monocytogenes

Gram-positive rod; found in soil and vegetable matter; may colonize GI tract; most likely to sicken pregnant women and their newborns, adults aged 65+ and people with weakened immune systems.

Enterococcus VRE

Common Infections: Urinary tract infections; bloodstream infections; wound infections; endocarditis; intra-abdominal/pelvic wounds; surgical site infections.


Common Infections: Abscess; pneumonia; empyema; osteomyelitis; sepsis; bacteremia; endocarditis; strains with acquired resistance to Methicillin (MRSA) common in hospitals; enteroxins; toxic shock syndrome (TSS).

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